Pioneer Saga feudal clan which played its part of the Meiji Restoration
Personnel training by bold education reform and introduction of the highest technology became driving force.
The traction position was teenage feudal lord Naomasa Nabeshima (1814 through 71).
It is will for a sense of crisis spring overseas advance
In 1851 (Kaei 4), direct plus entrusted Chinese poetry with own state of mind.
To "wind of Hainan, we want to jump out far toward ten thousand villages…". Thought gets excited while doing Chinese poetry with the same rhyme as a model in seinanshi of Masamune Date. - which "lets the Western world change completely, and wants to show climate of our country to."
In 1850 (Kaei 3) of this previous year, Saga feudal clan constructs the nation's first reverberatory furnace in castle bottom, Tsukiji (tsuiji) (current Nagasecho, Saga-shi) and starts casting of iron cannon. It is time when we were going to reinforce fort (battery) originally in Iojima and God no island of Nagasaki who dealt with the guard. In poetry of direct plus, rich international sense that took overseas advance into consideration is indicated.
It is ten years from Opium War (1840 through 42) to symbolize Asian presence of the European and American Great Powers. In contrast with the Shogunate which is negative against the reinforcement of the Nagasaki guard Saga feudal clan of arms buildup stepped.
It is said that it was strong sense of crisis that moved direct plus.
It was clue that the Nagasaki guard that was the biggest duty read the latest overseas situation for feudal clan and untied. Western countries which made steamship our one competed with iron cannon for expansion of colony by the Industrial Revolution.
In 1844 (Tenpo 15), direct plus gets on warship Palembang, Netherlands that visited a shore to Nagasaki. To board warship of feudal lord oneself foreign country was exceptional, but the advanced equipment for huge warship which loaded with iron cannon gave big shock.
How do you confront "gunboat diplomacy" of the European and American Great Powers? Oneself made iron cannon and steamship, and answer that direct plus that looked at fruit, and did Western civilization provided was to have strong armaments. This will bring great presence (presence) before long in Japan of the late Tokugawa period period.
Education reform a variety of personnel training
It was "education reform" to have supported progress of Saga feudal clan.
It is enhancement of educational institution for han children "Hiromichi building" that, at first, direct plus added pressure. In form based on statement of position "educational administration narrow view" about education of Confucianism person Kokudo Koga (1777 through 1836) who received discipline from the childhood period, we multiplied site by three and doubled budget 7. For feudal clan which suffered financial difficulty at the time, it was drastic policy.
Hiromichi building is constitution at endogeny dormitory of the lodging system equivalent to moyosha (if we already need) of attending school system and high school, university equal to current elementary and junior high school, the expansion station of attending school system. It was education system which could be also known as taking in advance of study system to be established after the Meiji era.
Textbook (prefectural Saga west high place storehouse, prefectural museum deposition) which was used in educational institution for han children "Hiromichi building" of Saga feudal clan
We demand entrance to school of children of all clansmans from senior vassal to low-class samurai called having nothing to do spear and show clearly when we select regardless of social position if we put excellent results. It was reform to open vent with family status in aristocratic family system that post was decided on at the time. On the other hand, we reduced hereditary stipend if we did not gain result such as obtaining "license" by 25 years old and established severe "bumbukagyoho" saying that we did not adopt to government official and recommended study thoroughly.
Against a backdrop of such an education base, Saga feudal clan starts Western technology absorption. We install Dutch learning dormitory in previous 1851 (Kaei 4) for four years when the Shogunate establishes "school of Western learning". 16, that which learned from Hiromichi building 17-year-old chose bright person from the second son and the third son, children of low clansman of family status mainly and let you study physics or chemistry.
When Japan opens a country by the conclusion of the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854 (Kaei 7), U.S. and British information that we took the center of innovation on comes to be brought. Direct plus chose bright person who learned from Dutch learning dormitory and taught English and, in 1867 (Keio 3), founded British school "hangakukeikosho" (next year "chienkan" and the changing of a name) in mansion of the Saga feudal clan Isahayas of Nagasaki ahead of other feudal clans.
"Investment that Saga feudal clan concentrated power on in people." That succeeds in casting of the nation's first iron cannon, and it is the domestic best modern scientific technology, and it bears fruit, but it will build nation after the Meiji Restoration to show the true value. It produced Shigenobu Okuma and others who acted as Takato Oki, the Prime Minister concerned with Yoshitake Shima who contributed to Hokkaido reclamation, founder Tsunetami Sano of the Japanese Red Cross Society in the back, study system and civil law establishment twice.
Education reform of Saga feudal clan was upbringing of a variety of human resources who could cope with change of the times flexibly.
Iron cannon, steamship… Overwhelming technology
Saga feudal clan adopted Western technology quickly and became the first runner of the modernization. It was from the need of arms buildup for "external pressure" called Asian presence of the European and American Great Powers, but many result by high technology reminds of "technique nation" which next Japan aims at.
[Tsukiji reverberatory furnace (tsuijihansharo)]
"Tsukiji reverberatory furnace illustrated map" koekizaidanhojinnabeshimaho*kaishozo
"Tsukiji reverberatory furnace" which Saga feudal clan built in current Nagasecho, Saga-shi in 1850 (Kaei 3) is reverberatory furnace of first in Japan. As well as Saga feudal clan, it is facility which became the starting point of the modernization of Japan.
Device that reverberatory furnace heats metal thing such as iron or bronze at high temperature and melts, and to refine. We concentrated passion on ceiling of furnace and were called reverberatory furnace because we used the radiation (if we prostrate ourselves) heat.
Production of "iron cannon" that purpose of Tsukiji reverberatory furnace building is stronger than "bronze artillery" mainstream in those days. Saga feudal clan repeated trial and error and, in 1852 (Kaei 5), succeeded in casting of iron cannon for the first time in Japan.
What the Shogunate recognized importance of coastal defense taking the opportunity of Perry visit to a shore of 1853 (Kaei 6), and hurried maintenance of iron cannon, but was able to make iron cannon in those days only in Saga feudal clan. Saga feudal clan received orders of the Shogunate and established "Tafuse reverberatory furnace" newly and cast iron cannon. It being extremely rare that country demands support from district in all ages. Even if prestige of the Shogunate was lost, it would be hard to abandon charm of iron cannon. It is expression of presence (presence) of Saga feudal clan having been high accordingly.
Afterwards, Saga feudal clan supported reverberatory furnace building of Nirayama (Shizuoka) and bush clover feudal clan (Yamaguchi), and iron manufacture technology was a chance to spread out throughout japan.
"Ryofu-maru illustrated map" *kashinshashozo
One of the historical facts to prove technology of Saga feudal clan which was the domestic top is first Japanese practical use steamship "Ryofu circle". It was got in Mietsu Naval Dock Site of Saga-shi appointed in world's cultural heritage in 1865 (Keio 1).
As for the ship at the time, sailing boat is mainstream. Naomasa Nabeshima wanted to change this to "steamship" which advanced in thermal energy that steam had. They start study of steam engine quickly, and Dutchmen which visited a shore to Nagasaki inspect. In addition, we purchased many steamships from the Netherlands and the U.K. We assigned Tsunetami Sano who was chief of Institute of Physical and Chemical Research "sei*ho" to person in charge and realized building of the Ryofu-maru.
Direct plus laid emphasis on medical reform.
We introduce license system into doctor that hereditary system was natural for the first time. In addition, aiming at the extermination of "smallpox" that was incurable disease, we gave Genboku Ito and Ryoei Oishi and others of court physician an order in 1849 (Kaei 2) and tried smallpox vaccination to legitimate child Junichiro. This is considered to be beginning of vaccination by cowpox in Japan. By trying smallpox vaccination to own child, showed effect and reliability in the world and made flow of the smallpox vaccination spread.